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botulinum toxin injection abstract saad

[Chapter Title]: Botulinum Toxin Injection

[Affiliation]:

Saad Sami AlSogair
Dr Layla AlOnaizi Polyclinic, Department of Dermatology
Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
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[Introduction/ Abstract: 1 paragraph, approx. 150-250 words, don’t include reference citations or undefined abbreviations) …]

Botulinum toxin injection is a common and frequently performed cosmetic procedure that is used in the treatment of facial wrinkles. It has become the treatment of choice for wrinkles occurring in the upper one-third of the face such as frown lines, horizontal forehead lines, and crow's feet. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Injection of small quantities of botulinum toxin into specific overactive muscles causes localized muscle relaxation that smooths the overlying skin and reduces wrinkles. Dynamic wrinkles, seen during muscle contraction, yield more dramatic results than static wrinkles, which are visible at rest. Patients with static wrinkles that are visible at rest are also candidates, but results are slower. Botulinum toxin injections are performed using small-gauge needles to minimize discomfort and bruising. Mild erythema, edema, and tenderness at injection sites are expected and resolve within a day. Bruising is common and can take up to two weeks to resolve. Other uncommon side effects are headaches, paresthesia, dysthesia and anxiety. Botulinum toxin injection is contraindicated in persons with keloidal scarring, neuromuscular disorders, allergies to constituents of botulinum toxin products, and body dysmorphic disorder.



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